Preventive Cardiology

Preventive cardiology is a subfield that focuses on methods to reduce the risk of a heart attack. A preventive cardiologist practices this subfield of medicine so that patients do not suffer from heart failure or stroke. They also work with patients who have heart diseases to prevent further complications. People in this subfield use medications on people who have a high risk of developing heart diseases. The medications include SGLT2 inhibitors or gliflozins which reduce blood glucose levels without activating the release of insulin from the pancreas. They also reduce blood pressure in diabetic patients. Medications like SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 help reduce obesity, hypertension, and blood sugar levels since these three factors contribute to heart diseases. For those who already have had their first heart attack, PCSK9 inhibitors are given to reduce cholesterol levels or low-density lipoprotein in the patient's circulatory system.

Preventive Cardiology should be considered by individuals who :-

  • Have a family history of heart attack, heart failure, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, hypertension ( high blood pressure), high cholesterol, high blood sugar, and so on.
  • Have conditions like high blood pressure, diabetes, or have triglyceride or cholesterol levels, obesity, or do not exercise at all.
  • lifestyle choices are poor like consumption of a high saturated fat diet, alcohol, or smoking regularly. Individuals who follow a very irregular sleep schedule should also consider seeing a preventive cardiologist

Preventive Cardiology includes the following treatments :-

Mechanism of Heart Valves

Cholesterol Management and changing lifestyle choices
Preventive cardiologists and their team evaluate the cholesterol problems, diet, and habits of their patients and give provide diet charts and a healthy routine to their patients like having a balanced diet, exercising regularly, and other plans that are essential for cardiac health. They monitor the regular activities of their patients and recommend other plans to improve their condition.

Tests and scans
Preventive cardiologists and their team, before treating the person, do certain tests to analyze the condition or disease and recommend proper instructions respectively. They do advanced tests like glucose tolerance tests, arterial blood gas tests, blood clotting tests (International Normalized Ratio), High Density and Low-Density Lipoprotein tests, plasma viscosity tests, C-reactive protein tests that check the level of inflammation in the body, level of red blood cell and white blood cell count, hemoglobin tests and so on.

Imaging
Cardiac imaging is referred to as a non-interfering technique of capturing the image of a heart using methods like ultrasound, cardiac MRI or standard MRI, echocardiography, computed tomography, and so on. Ultrasound is done by placing a hand-held instrument called a transducer at the top of your chest cavity. This instrument sends ultrasonic waves that bounce off the heart and capture the live image of the heart, which is shown on a screen. MRI or magnetic resonance imaging is done by using hydrogen atoms to capture the image of the heart instead of using ultrasonic waves in the case of ultrasound or echocardiography. The hydrogen atoms are attached to the water or fat molecules around the heart so they can capture the accurate size, shape, and function of the heart. Invasive cardiac imaging includes coronary catheterization where a long, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted through the arteries of the wrist, thigh, or leg region to reach the heart and capture the image of it.

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